Can anyone explain what avere la botte piena, la moglie ubriaca e l'uva sulla vigna means?
Also, are there regional variations of that proverb? If so, what are they?
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It has the same meaning of the expression "have your cake and eat it too", that is, when there's a tradeoff you cannot have both things at the same time.
In this case you have three parts:
botte piena = a full barrel [of wine]
moglie ubriaca = a drunk wife
uva sulla vigna = grapes on the vine, the grapes used to make the wine
The third part is sometimes omitted, and you also have avere la moglie piena e la botte ubriaca.
There are some regional variations, for example, in Ferrara there's an s'pol brisa aver galina, ov e cul cald (non si possono avere gallina, uovo e culo caldo; literally, "you can't have chicken, egg and warm ass," where warm ass means not to have to work).
It means to want something impossible, since it is not possible to have a barrel full of wine if somebody drank the wine, and it is not possible to have grapes on a grapevine, if the grapes have been used to make wine.
The only variant I know is the shortened version of what you wrote: Avere la botte piena e la moglie ubriaca.