"Anillado" is the translation in Spanish, but there isn't one appearing for me right now on any Italian dictionary that I use... My university is public so even though I was unenrolled I still get to visit the mathematics community. I have to know this translation!
This seems to be a mathematical term which, I suppose, is too specialized to be found in common vocabularies.
Ringed in English (and anillado in Spanish) can be translated with anellato or inanellato (https://www.wordreference.com/enit/ringed). The first form means more "having ring(s)" or "shaped like a ring" and the second more "enclosed by ring(s)" or "wearing a ring".
If this can help, a space enclosed by two concentric circles (Annulus) is called corona circolare (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corona_circolare) and anello in algebra refers to ring of sets (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_of_sets). For what I understand, not being a mathematician, these last definitions have little to do with "ringed space".
I think that the term spazio anellato/inanellato can be understood by an Italian mathematician as it is more or less the direct translation from English, but maybe he would be happier without any translation, i.e. "il ringed space".
Even if this question has already an accepted answer, I thought it might be useful to post an answer from direct experience.
When I took a scheme theory class in Pisa in 2010, the Italian expression for "(locally) ringed space" was indeed "spazio (localmente) anellato". As you can see this is also the term used in the Italian Wikipedia page for schemes.
It is worth mentioning that this indeed has no relation with any kind of "annulus", here "ring" is in the sense of abstract algebra.