"The idea of dressing one’s capital up in different clothes by putting it into a particular business, stock, etc." is curious to me. How is allocating capital into a particular business, stock, etc. related to "dressing one's capital up"? This semantic relation probably would never cross the mind of an an average Joe like mine.
In 2021, we definitely don't think of finance or financial economics as "dressing one's capital up in different clothes"! Before I read these quotations, I had never heard of this kooky idea of "dressing one's capital up" in stocks, bonds, Exchange Traded Funds, etc.
The etymological notion underlying invest is of ‘putting on clothes’. It comes via Old French investir from Latin investīre, a compound verb formed from the prefix in- and vestis ‘clothes’ (source of English vest, vestment, travesty, etc). It retained that original literal sense ‘clothe’ in English for several centuries, but now it survives only in its metaphorical descendant ‘instal in an office’ (as originally performed by clothing in special garments). Its financial sense, first recorded in English in the early 17th century, is thought to have originated in Italian investire from the idea of dressing one’s capital up in different clothes by putting it into a particular business, stock, etc.
Word Origins (2005 2e) by John Ayto, p 291.
The financial meaning of the word also descends from Latin, but it entered English via Italian in the early 17th century. In Italian, investire developed a special sense fabricated from the notion of "clothing" money in a new form. That use was attached to the English word invest, which eventually came to refer to a commitment of money to earn a return. This financial sense of invest is attested in the early 1600s in connection with trading by the East India Company.