Student at A2/B1 level. 2 years on Duolingo and just started ‘Italy Made Easy’ Intermediate course. Google Translate gives over 10 different translations for ‘any’. Duolingo marks one correct for translating ‘any’ as qualsiasi in one translation of ‘any’, but wrong in another, giving ‘qualche’ instead. Any advice on how one works out which to use and why please? Thanks
I am going to refer to the "Cambridge Dictionary - Grammar Today" section about "any" and provide you a translation of the examples:
Examples of language in use
Any as a determiner
- Did you bring any bread? -> Hai portato del/il pane?
- Mr Jacobson refused to answer any questions. -> Mr Jacobson ha rifiutato di rispondere a qualsiasi/qualunque domanda
- If I were able to travel back to any place and time in history, I would go to ancient China. -> Se potessi viaggiare indietro nella storia a qualunque/qualsiasi periodo e luogo, andrei nell'antica Cina
Weak form any: indefinite quantities 
- Have you got any eggs? -> Hai (delle) uova
- I haven’t got any eggs. -> Non ho (delle) uova
- I’ve got some eggs. -> Ho delle/alcune uova
- Do I need to get any petrol? -> Devo fare benzina?
- There aren’t any clean knives. They’re all in the dishwasher. -> Non ci sono (dei) coltelli puliti. Sono tutti nella lavastoviglie
Strong form any meaning ‘it does not matter which’ 
- Call 0800675-437 for any information about the courses -> Chiama lo 0800675-437 per qualsiasi/qualunque informazione sui corsi
- When you make a late booking, you don’t know where you’re going to go, do you? It could be any destination. -> Quando fai una prenotazione last-minute non sai dove andrai, vero? Potrebbe essere qualsiasi/qualunque destinazione
- Do we have any form of agreement with new staff when they start? -> Abbiamo qualche forma di accordo con il nuovo staff, su quando inizieranno?
Any as a pronoun
A: Have you got some £1 coins on you?
B: Sorry, I don’t think I have any. -> Spiacente, non penso di averne
A: Do you find that Elizabeth gets lots of homework? Marie gets a lot.
B: No not really. She gets hardly any. -> Veramente no. Ne ha a malapena.
A: What did you think of the cake? It was delicious, wasn’t it?
B: I don’t know. I didn’t get any. -> Non so. Non ne ho mangiata/avuta
Any of 
- Shall I keep any of these spices? I think they’re all out of date. -> Devo tenere qualcuna di queste spezie? Penso che siano tutte scadute.
- Are any of you going to the meeting? -> Qualcuno di voi sta andando all'incontro?
- I couldn’t answer any of these questions. -> Non potrei rispondere a nessuna/alcuna di queste domande
- I listen to Abba but I’ve never bought any of their music. -> Ascolto gli Abba ma non ho mai comprato la loro musica
Notes about the grammar
 Any as a determiner for indefinite quantities
As a general rule of thumb, when in English you use any + plural noun or any + uncountable noun, in Italian you do not translate at all "any" or you use the preposition
di ("of") + the appropriate article for the name (
 Any as a determiner meaning ‘it does not matter which’
In general, when "any" indicates "one (or more), no matter which", you translate it with "qualunque" or "qualsiasi"; whet it indicates "zero (or more), no matter which" you translate it with "qualche". In the examples, if you call the number you have at least one question about the courses,if you make a late booking you'll be offered at least one destination but you might or might not have an agreement with the new staff.
 Any of
In general, in positive sentences you use "qualcuno/a di" and in negative ones you use "nessuno/a di" or "alcuno/a di". With uncountable nouns, like in the last example, you do not translate "any".
About the double negation in Italian
As suggested by @DenisNardin, the double negation can be confusing for an English speaker but the topic is not strictly related to this question and might require a long explanation, therefore I am going to link a couple of resources where you can find some more information:
It depends on the context of the sentence:
- in negative sentences the meaning is that of "nessuno,
es.: There aren't any jewels in the treasure chest (Non c'è nessun gioiello nel forziere)
- in interrogative and affirmative sentences the meaning is that of
“qualche, alcuni, un po’”
Do you have any coins? (Hai qualche moneta?)
Do you like any of these topping on your frozen yogurt? (Ti piace qualcuno di questi condimenti sul tuo yogurt gelato?)
- in affirmative sentences exceptionally it has the meaning of
es.: Pick any fruit you want (Scegli qualsiasi frutto che vuoi)