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10

If you mean a literal “&”, none of the proposed forms is meaningful. In an informal communication, you'd use the first name followed, if necessary, by e famiglia. For instance: (Saluti da) Mario e famiglia. In a formal context, you might use famiglia followed by the family name: (Sentite condoglianze), famiglia Rossi.


10

It is also possible to use Voi instead of Lei. It is rare and used mostly in southern Italy. In some areas you are supposed to use "Voi" also speaking to your parents and also if you are not a kid anymore. This is very rare anyway, I met only 1 person following this rule. Galateo states that you should use Tu with people of inferior rank, Lei with peers, ...


10

Unfortunately Entre altre notizie has no meaning in Italian. If you mean In other news you could translate it with cambiando argomento or passando ad altro. The expression cari colleghi is fine at the beginning of a letter, corresponding to "dear colleagues".


8

According to this page (nr. 6), distinti saluti and cordiali saluti are almost equivalent; more precisely here it is said that:  in tutti i casi meno intimi, [sarebbe] meglio un cordiali saluti, non dimenticando che cordiale significa “che viene dal cuore” (latino cor, cordis).  (when you're not intimate with the person you're writing to, cordiali ...


7

According to La Grammatica Italiana, by the Istituto Treccani Until the fourteenth century the system of allocutive pronouns was composed only by tu and voi as a form of respect. The first attestations of lei go back to the fifteenth century and between the sixteenth and seventeenth this usage spreads gradually until it became preponderant, likely for the ...


7

Short answer: it's really uncommon to use loro in this case. You may want to use voi even in a formal conversation. Why? I don't really know. Perhaps, because voi was used in the past for the plurale maestatis, hence it already contains this formal meaning. However, even if it's uncommon, you could use loro: Stavo parlando con loro Dove si sono ...


6

Italian has two forms of address meaning you in the singular: tu (the informal form) used with friends, family, children and animals; and lei (the formal form, normally written with uppercase "L"), which is used in business situations, such as in a shop or a bank, with new acquaintances (until invited to use tu) and with people older than you or considered ...


6

Capitalizing the pronoun when it is referring to the person/people to whom a communication is directed is normally used in commercial/business communications. Capitalizing it would mean to consider the receiver of the communication important. Nowadays, it is less and less used; somebody could also find it affected. Eventually, the communication can start ...


5

§9.6 of Maiden's A Linguistic History of Italian: Pronouns of address The CL second person pronouns distinguished singular (TU) and plural (UOS). This system is continued in many southern Italian dialects (e.g., in Abruzzo, southern Marche, southern Puglia and parts of Campania and Calabria), but in the history of Italian (together with many other ...


5

You can look at this link from Zanichelli or at this one. The first one is easier to understand for a non-Italian, the second is a bit more difficult IMHO. If you aren't able to translate some part of these links ask in a comment and I will help you! (For your letter: Remember that English people say "you" for a formal communication, but in Italian is very ...


4

I think that a good one can be Gradirei sentire la sua opinione in merito all'offerta che le abbiamo fatto la scorsa settimana I suggest you to don't use "ciao" since as translation of "hello" since it isn't formal. Use instead "salve" (it's good in a lot of situations) or "buongiorno"/"buonasera".


4

None of the previous answers have addressed the origin of the forms "tu", "voi" and "lei", an aspect also asked by the OP and, for this reason, I would like to add some words. According to Luca Serianni in his book Italiano (see section VII.85): Il latino si serviva sempre del TŪ, qualunque fosse il livello dell'interlocutore. In età imperiale si diffuse ...


4

Purtroppo il linguaggio non si divide in caselline ben separate ed etichettate. Non è possibile distinguere tutte le espressioni come "formali" o "informali": alcune sono sicuramente formali (e.g. ottemperare), altre sicuramente informali (e.g. fancazzista), altre una via di mezzo (eseguire). Inoltre la maggior parte delle parole non sono né formali né ...


4

Section 7.1.6 of the book Grammatica italiana. Con nozioni di linguistica by Maurizio Dardano and Pietro Trifone (third edition) is devoted to Italian allocutive pronouns, beginning with the so called "pronomi allocutivi di rispetto o di cortesia", namely "lei" ("ella" in classical literary texts) and "voi" for ...


3

The common respect form is “lei” for a single person and the verb in the third person singular. It used to be “loro” for more people and the verb in the third person plural, but in current Italian it's only used in very formal writing or when the speaker wants to emphasize their condition of inferiority. Something like “Che cosa desiderano?” can be heard ...


3

The forms of salutations you cite are very common and colloquial. They are typically used with friends and people you are familiar with. They are similar to the more internationally known forms such as: ciao and arrivederci. A few of the above forms are defined by De Mauro Dictionary 1) A dopo , 2) A più tardi, 3) A presto


3

This confusion stems from the fact that English lacks what in Italian is called "forma di cortesia" nowadays (German has it, for example, and the Japanese one is more complicate, having different ways to express it depending on who the person you are addressing is). As other answers already explained, "tu" is the normal way to address a person that you ...


3

"Lei" is used in formal situations (at least until it is agreed by the parties that "tu" is more appropriate). I would normally consider it polite to wait for the "superior" (for lack of a better word) person to invite the other to go on "tu" terms, rather than for the "inferior" one to ask for it. The English equivalent might be calling someone (named, say,...


2

The second phrase is more formal and slightly antique (antique not in a sense of "archaic" but just as an older and established version). It is the only style in which any bureaucratic correspondence or commercial letters should be written. The rules require using capitalization of the pronouns a) to distinguish between a correspondent, addressed in a polite ...


2

I would use «Cordiali saluti» in a letter where: I invite people for a some "familiar" for example a wedding; some commercial letter, in which I want to be "closer" to the customer, and the customer is a private; If i am a doctor (or a lawyer or another professionist) and reply online to the question of an user. I would prefer «Distinti saluti» if I am in ...


2

If you want something a bit more formal than "Cordiali Saluti", you could use "Distinti Saluti", which I think is more appropriate when writing to a public official.


2

Come hai scritto va benissimo, comunque, se vuoi scrivere una lettera in stile burocratico, adotta questo tenore: Al Responsabile dell'Ufficio Immigrazione della Questura di xx Indirizzo Il sottoscritto, Hatem Alimam, ...


2

According to this page a formal salutation could be Reverendo Padre Rossi while Egregio Padre is slightly less formal. Also according to the same page, the letter should end with a phrase like La prego di accogliere, Reverendo Canonico (NAME AND SURNAME) l'espressione dei miei sentimenti deferenti (YOUR NAME AND SURNAME) or Con ...


1

Il Grande dizionario italiano dell’uso di Tullio De Mauro fa la distinzione, nella sua sezione "Marca d'uso", tra queste e altre categorie: FO: fondamentale; tra i lemmi principali, sono così marcati i vocaboli di altissima frequenza, le cui occorrenze costituiscono circa il 90% delle occorrenze lessicali nell’insieme di tutti i testi scritti o discorsi ...


1

You can find on Treccani's appellativi e epiteti [prontuario] a list of proper forms for most of ecclesiastics and their abbravistions. For a bishop: (Sua) Eccellenza (S. Ecc. o Sua Ecc.): vescovo o alto prelato; nella tradizione, prefetti e questori, e così via; for a cardinal: (Sua) Eminenza (S.E. o S. Em.), Eminentissimo (Em.mo, E.mo): ...


1

In modern Italian language "voi" means you (plural). The pronoun "loro" means they and is used even as honorific plural form. However in northern Italy old people used "voi" as honorific form when they talked to their parents.


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