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17

Very short answer: It just happened so. Short answer: The poetic and narrative monuments written by Dante, Petrarca, and Boccaccio put them and their variety of Italian as a model to many later writers and critics. But it was not so automatic: there were centuries of debate, starting mostly during the Renaissance, with Pietro Bembo and many others, and with ...


14

As for the relative difference in the usage or the two courtesy pronouns "Lei" and "Voi", I point out the answer in "Darsi del tu" and "del lei" The main idea outlined is that nowadays' standard Italian uses only tu as the informal friendly pronoun, and Lei as the courtesy one, so that Voi has almost disappeared, except than in some ...


12

Not everything that ends with -a is feminine and not everything that ends with -o is masculine, so don't get mislead by that. The suffix -ista is neuter, it's valid for both sexes and this means that, of course, *economisto and *giuristo are not valid words. The suffix comes from Latin -ista(m), which in turn comes from the Greek -istḗs. It is called ...


12

It is an apocope (in Italian troncamento or apocope), a usual phenomenon in which one or more final letters of a word are omitted, usually for metrical or general euphonic reasons, not specific of a particular grammatical person or number (but with its own empirical rules). Some troncamenti are now fixed (think about buon giorno rather than *buono giorno, ...


11

Alle sue origini anche il verbo fregare aveva un significato di diretto riferimento all'atto sessuale (da e.g., fricazione di corpi). Scopare potrebbe aver assunto un significato analogo nello stesso momento, questo perché l'azione caratteristica dello spazzare in terra, richiede movimenti alternati per lo più mediante un oggetto il cui manico è ...


11

Che orrore per un vero e proprio gentiluomo, chiamare le calze le calze... "Gli inesprimibili" riferiscono a mutande, calze o guepières (La Repubblica: Se è vietato nominare la guepière). Le donne turche portavano qualcosa di questo genere: (image source) Ovviamente, nel 1877 questo era il costume dell'estrema libertà di stile, adatto forse per la ...


9

This might be better answered in a history or linguistic forum; but since I stumbled upon your question while seeking help for myself, I'm giving you an educated opinion, which shouldn't be taken as any more than that. For me, it seems obvious that this answer to the question, "Why does Ancient Greek have a higher degree of mutual intelligibility with ...


9

One of the standard works on the subject is certainly the three-volume Grammatica storica della lingua italiana e dei suoi dialetti by the German philologist Gerhard Rohlfs, published in Italian by Einaudi. It is the translation of the German original, Historische Grammatik der italienischen Sprache und ihrer Mundarten (1949-54). It is apparently legally ...


8

A fantastic question. I reserve to edit and further add details to this answer as soon as I get some. There are many texts that acknowledge the differences in the usage of the past that you mentioned, but none of them digs into the reasons why this difference exists. At the moment, I have found this reference, which links the differences in the usage of ...


8

I don't have any official reference for this, but from a logic perspective it means "la prego", it being a warm and polite invitation to accept an offer (a door held open, for instance). In the same way, when someone says "Grazie", "Prego" is an invitation to stop thanking - again, polite - because the gratitude has been acknowledged.


8

For the sake of completeness, let's separate the comparative grammar of Italian, explained in relation to Latin and/or English - as in the pamphlet you link to - and the historical transformation of one language into another. NB: works are sorted from the oldest to the latest. Seminal works on the Italian grammar, explaining its Latin roots: Grammatica ...


8

You seem to be interested in the oldest Italian text readable by a native speaker. Unfortunately the problem is that there just aren't many old Italian texts, especially from Tuscany. Here I'll list the main ones I could find (my source is Migliorini's Storia della lingua italiana), limiting to texts coming from Tuscany and neighboring areas, together with ...


7

If we focus on the lexical level, the answer is yes, Dante was a creator of many words and expressions that we use. First, according to some statistic here, 90% of the basic Italian lexicon in use nowadays (that is, 90% out of 2000 most common words, which are in turn 90% of what is said, read, and written every day) are already in Commedia. Second, ...


7

I would think a major factor was the prestige of the literary works from the area of Firenze. And this prestige might have reinforced the use of Toscano as a kind of lingua franca among certain people on the peninsula way before Regno d'Italia came about. Most people however would of course only speak their local language/dialect, something that didn't ...


7

Alzar is the verb "alzare" (with the elision of the last vowel) = to raise, to lift up, to grow. Avolto seems a poetic form for "avvolto" (past participle) (here the same verses have "avvolto" https://it.wikisource.org/wiki/Gerusalemme_liberata/Canto_primo) = wrapped. Pareano is a poetic form for for "parevano" = they seemed, they looked like.


6

I am not sure this is the most recent, however of course any answer is going to be obsolete soon, but I can think of perplimere, which is a "made-up" infinitive of the adjective, with past principle form, perplesso. It is a made up verb, last time I looked up the Latin form perplexus, -a, um it did not have a corresponding verb form.


6

Non penso proprio che esista un analogo. Prima di tutto non mi risulta che in Italia ci sia stata una tradizione di pirateria propriamente detta (la Wikipedia italiana, per quel che vale, ne conosce tre di numero). E poi, anche nel mondo anglosassone, il “pirate talk” è quasi del tutto un'invenzione recente, soprattutto cinematografica, a partire dai primi ...


6

As a side note: there's wide agreement about Tuscan literature having been very important in the birth of Italian literature and this is the reason why Florentine became the basis of modern Italian. But why was Tuscany so interested in literature in Italian? Because Tuscany had a very high concentration of "free cities" that represented, together with the ...


6

Innanzitutto bisogna fare una distinzione tra calco e prestito, due fenomeni differenti, i quali poi si suddividono in altri tipi. Il calco semantico, per esempio, aggiunge un significato ad una parola già esistente: realizzare significa anche "rendersi conto" dall'inglese to realize, salvare file digitali da to save. Il calco strutturale prende una parola ...


6

That would be the corresponding of present-day “&”, a glyph originated from a cursive ligature as a single character of an “e” and a “t”, to form Latin conjunction “et”, that is, “and”. And indeed it was and is still used in Italian, English and other languages to mean “and”. It's usually called “ampersand” in English and e commerciale in Italian. Image ...


6

Grande dizionario della lingua italiana gives some of the oldest occurences known of "malandrino". There you can find an example of usage from Bartolomeo da San Concordio (Pisa, 1262 - 1347) (see also this source): Anche sollecitava malandrini e ladroni d’ogni generazione, de’ quali in quel luogo avea grande abbondanza. There is another ...


5

'to scan': io utilizzo 'scansire'. lo trovo più elegante di 'scannerizzare' o del piu truce 'scannare' che comunque ogni tanto mi capita di sentire.


5

I'd like to suggest "Alfiere" as a possible derivation for such name. As of the above claim of Germanic origin, according to "Wiktionary" (source: http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/alfiere), the word comes from the Spanish alférez, which in turns comes from the Arabic al-faris (knight).


5

Many Classic Latin words end with a consonant, mostly -m, -t and -s. While in Florentine generally the final -m and -t have disappeared, most words in -s have seen their final vowel changed due a phenomenon called palatalization. Specifically, verbs from the first three Latin conjugations have seen their ending -s transforming their final vowel to -i, e.g.: ...


5

As you can see from Wikipedia, the sign language used in Italy is called "lingua dei segni italiana". You can find more information about this sign language at these Wikipedia articles: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Sign_Language https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingua_dei_segni_italiana


5

Un’altra parola forzatamente italianizzata in quel periodo era il cachet (equivalente della nostra attuale aspirina) che era tradotto come cialdino. In questo articolo ho trovato anche i riferimenti normativi: “Divieto di uso delle parole straniere nelle intestazioni (delle ditte) e nelle varie forme di pubblicità” (legge 23 dicembre 1940, n. 2042) Per la ...


5

If we look at the first page of the “Prohemio” (modern Italian, “Proemio”), we see which shows some peculiarities. The most prominent is the usage of “&” instead of et. But we also see usages of “h” which modern Italian has dropped (humana, haver, havuto, hebbe) because it doesn't correspond to a sound (except in the verbal forms ho, hai and hanno). ...


5

The word de' you have found is a truncated version of "preposizione articolata" dei. Section IV.80 of the book Italiano by Luca Serianni gives detailed information about the truncated versions of this and other Italian "preposizioni articolate", namely a' (<ai), co' (<coi), da' (<dai), de' (<dei), ne' (<nei). They were typical of the ...


4

Quelle h spesso modificano le vocali in un qualche modo, es. con suoni aspirati oppure allungandole. Nelle altre parole è raro che ci siano queste cose. L'unico caso di parola quasi "normale" con la h usata in quel modo che mi viene in mente è vabbè (va bene -> vabbene -> vabbe(ne) -> vabbè) che si può scrivere correttamente anche come va beh. Cosa cambia?...


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