27

La posposizione del pronome riflessivo nella terza persona era un tempo molto comune nella lingua scritta. Nella lingua moderna non è più usata se non in forme cristallizzate e, naturalmente, nel linguaggio burocratico o volutamente aulico. Nei libri di matematica fino a un paio di decenni fa si trovavano spesso frasi come Un'equazione di secondo grado ...


26

Ci is indeed a tricky italian word, has it has several different uses and I'm afraid there are no fast rules, as its meaning greatly dependends on the context. I'll try to go through some of the most common uses It can be direct personal pronoun Il professore ci ha visto copiare. which corresponds to Il professore ha visto noi copiare The professor saw us ...


21

Past participles definitely do change according to the object gender and number for transitive verbs when the object is a pronoun, like in your example. They do not, however, change if the verb is intransitive, even if its passato prossimo uses “avere”, like “ho pranzato”. (some examples, as requested in comments) Transitive verbs - singular subject Ho ...


15

With a pronoun as object, the only allowed form is the one you used: nobody would say "*Li ho messo in tasca". With an explicit object, the participle is invariable: "Ho messo i libri in tasca". When the pronoun is a direct object and precedes the verb, as in the example given, then the past participle agrees with the direct object.


15

From the Academia della Crusca explanation: There are five cases in which pronouns form a single word with the previous item: with an imperative verb (e.g., dimmi, ascoltalo, parglagli) with a gerund or in the past tense (e.g., vedendola, avendomi detto) with a past participle with the function of the subordinate clause (e.g., giuntami ...


14

As for the relative difference in the usage or the two courtesy pronouns "Lei" and "Voi", I point out the answer in "Darsi del tu" and "del lei" The main idea outlined is that nowadays' standard Italian uses only tu as the informal friendly pronoun, and Lei as the courtesy one, so that Voi has almost disappeared, except than in some ...


12

Nel caso di "fascicolala" il verbo è "fascicolare", imperativo "fascicola" + pronome "la", risultato "fascicolala". Nel caso di "mettila" il verbo è "mettere", imperativo "metti" + pronome "la", risultato "mettila". Se esistesse un verbo "mettilare" (il che non mi risulta, e in ogni caso credo avrebbe un altro significato), potresti dire "mettilala". (...


12

In the first answer, ci is moto a luogo (motion to), whereas in the second answer ne is moto da luogo (motion from). If you expand them, you get No, non sono andato a Parigi and Sì, sono appena uscito dal supermercato According to the Treccani dictionary, ci for moto da luogo is uncommon (non com.). See also the entry for ne.


12

Intanto, "qualunque altro" da solo non si potrebbe dire, perché "qualunque" è un aggettivo e non un pronome, a differenza di "chiunque". In questo caso, poi, si sta confrontando quella ricerca con tutte le altre persone e cose che si sono espresse sui voucher. Direi quindi che in questo caso "chiunque altro" sia l'unico modo per esprimersi, anche perché si ...


10

It is also possible to use Voi instead of Lei. It is rare and used mostly in southern Italy. In some areas you are supposed to use "Voi" also speaking to your parents and also if you are not a kid anymore. This is very rare anyway, I met only 1 person following this rule. Galateo states that you should use Tu with people of inferior rank, Lei with peers, ...


10

In currently spoken Italian, the pronoun io would be omitted in this case, but it's not the main aspect of the question. In the sentence me ne sono ricordato the verb is ricordarsi which is not, as several grammar say, the reflexive form of ricordare, but an intensive form. The conjugation is the same as for reflexive verbs. There's a slight difference ...


9

It's the equivalent for "I do it immediately" or "I do that immediately"; in the same way lo vedo is the equivalent for "I see it" or "I see that."


9

No, it is not necessary to use personal pronouns with any verb, in particular not with the verb essere. Using a technical language we can say that Italian is a "null-subject" language. Rather than references (any decent grammar book will give you the rules) let me give you a bunch of examples: Sono a casa! (I'm home) Se tutto va bene, siamo ...


9

Your teacher is wrong and your examples are perfect. The subject pronoun can be used, for emphasis or for marking distinctions: I would say Io sono italiano, lei è catalana. when asked about me and my fellow moderator Charo. But if asked “Di che nazionalità sei?", I'd answer Sono italiano. because no emphasis or distinction is necessary. The ...


8

A me sembra più un refuso che un fenomeno linguistico di qualche tipo. Refusi simili possono derivare da una variazione fatta ad una frase, ma non portata a termine. P.es., potrebbe essere che la frase fosse, ad un certo punto, Ognuno ha portato una pietanza, e l'ha divisa con gli altri. e che l'intenzione fosse di farla diventare Ognuno ha portato ...


8

Egli, ella, essi ed esse, come suggerisce Google Ngram, sono stati quasi completamente rimpiazzati da lui, lei e loro, tuttavia è possibile utilizzarli in contesti molto formali, oppure se si desidera conferire un sapore di "antico" a livello stilistico: infatti, fino a pochi decenni fa, lui, lei e loro erano considerati un errore se utilizzati in funzione ...


8

It is a masculine pronoun, only singular, and it indicates or replaces the noun of a thing, generally referred as a verb or a phrase, it can be both subject and complement. It has neutral value and it is mostly used with the relative che : chiedimi ciò che vuoi. In the past it could refer to plural nouns and people names used in conjunction to the verb ...


8

Yes, double negatives are grammatical, and common, in Italian. See on this monolingual dictionary, for instance: Se posposto al verbo, è di solito rafforzato da altra negazione (non, né, senza, ecc.). My translation: when the word nessuno comes after the verb, usually it is reinforced by another negation: non, né, senza, etc. Examples from the same source: ...


7

Both OK, "di cui" (and "per cui", "in cui" etc.) is shorter and invariant therefore it's more commonly used in spoken language and sounds less formal. Sometimes using "le quali" or the other forms with gender and number ("i quali", "il quale", "la quale") clarifies which is the noun referenced by the subordinate sentence, e.g. ...la sconfitta di Napoleone,...


7

You can either use the demonstrative or not, but we don’t usually use “quello”: we use ”questo”, and above all “’sto”, the aphaeretic form of “questo” common in everyday, informal speech and in several dialects. If you’re angry, you’re more likely to say “’Sti maledetti ragazzini!” rather than “Questi maledetti ragazzini!” (which sounds more calm, polite). ...


7

When I scan the sentence I see no mi sa che mi, I have mi sa <subordinate clause> and if <subordinate clause> happens to contain mi, this doesn't tell me there is or there should be any relationship between that mi and the previous one. If you are worried about the sound, due to the presence of a repetition, as a native speaker I personally don'...


7

Si chiamano allocutivi di cortesia. Per rivolgersi ad altre persone si usano pronomi a seconda del contesto o dell'età (un tempo anche dell'importanza sociale). Il Lei e il Voi si utilizzano ora generalmente in contesti formali o con persone più anziane: Allocutivi di cortesia Nel corso della storia il loro significato ed il loro utilizzo sono però ...


7

Short answer: it's really uncommon to use loro in this case. You may want to use voi even in a formal conversation. Why? I don't really know. Perhaps, because voi was used in the past for the plurale maestatis, hence it already contains this formal meaning. However, even if it's uncommon, you could use loro: Stavo parlando con loro Dove si sono ...


7

The simple answer is that this is an idiomatic form, and that la penso/i/... così is a standard way to say, more or less, “this is my opinion”. To go deeper, in situation like this, la can be considered a fixed falso oggetto (“mock object”, say), that is, a pronoun that doesn't necessarily refer to a specific object mentioned previously. This is usual with ...


7

According to La Grammatica Italiana, by the Istituto Treccani Until the fourteenth century the system of allocutive pronouns was composed only by tu and voi as a form of respect. The first attestations of lei go back to the fifteenth century and between the sixteenth and seventeenth this usage spreads gradually until it became preponderant, likely for the ...


6

Italian has two forms of address meaning you in the singular: tu (the informal form) used with friends, family, children and animals; and lei (the formal form, normally written with uppercase "L"), which is used in business situations, such as in a shop or a bank, with new acquaintances (until invited to use tu) and with people older than you or considered ...


6

Capitalizing the pronoun when it is referring to the person/people to whom a communication is directed is normally used in commercial/business communications. Capitalizing it would mean to consider the receiver of the communication important. Nowadays, it is less and less used; somebody could also find it affected. Eventually, the communication can start ...


6

In italiano moderno, il complemento di termine precede il complemento oggetto nei pronomi accoppiati. Si dice me lo, te ne, glielo, ecc. La coppia di pronomi di norma precede il verbo; segue invece il verbo e assume in tutti i casi la forma univerbata con i verbi di modo: gerundio giocandomelo / avendomelo giocato cantandoglieli / avendoglieli cantati ...


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